Chocolate, chocolate is a kind of cocoa as the main raw material made into candy, delicate taste lubrication brown luster, high calorific value, high nutritional value, and easy digestion and absorption by human body.
Cocoa beans contain a large number of moisture and aroma, after roasting and then fermentation, had strong fragrance, then add in machining process in the cream, milk powder, malt, almond, vanillin aroma components, such as making chocolate has a special aroma.
Chocolate candy contains high fat, high protein, high sugar, high quantity of heat, the melting point of cocoa butter is close to the body's temperature, cocoa contains rich vitamin and trace theobromine and caffeine excited nerve material such as hitches in the processing of grinding particles for many times, highly emulsified to form a good color, fragrance, taste and make chocolate candy has high nutritional value, and easy digestion and absorption.
Many different kinds of chocolate candy, can be divided into: chocolate, nuts, chocolate, chocolate, wine heart chocolate and nuts hanging pulp chocolate, etc.
Chocolate candy is composed of cocoa products, sugar and milk zhu. The products including cocoa mass, cocoa butter and cocoa powder.
1. Cocoa block: also known as cocoa or bitter. To pass through the roasted cocoa beans to shell DouRou, ground into a paste, condenses into brown after cooling with aroma and an indication of the block solid, belongs to the work piece material. Cocoa block should be lower than 4% of water content, fat content is below 55%, less than 45% is not in conformity with the requirements.
2. Cocoa butter: remove fat from cocoa mass, part. Hard and has a brittle cracking resistance at room temperature, liquid cocoa butter by cooling contraction in solid state. Cocoa butter is beautiful and unique fragrance. Cocoa butter is composed of a variety of triglycerides.
3. The cocoa powder, cocoa liquid put forward after the cocoa butter cake, the grinding into powder is the cocoa powder. Cocoa processing methods are divided into general method and alkali treatment method.
Chocolate is how to make:
Chocolate candy has the characteristics of lubrication, delicate and inviting aroma, because it is the raw material and production process.
In the heart of the production process of chocolate products all solid dispersion in the composition of tiny particles, making all the soluble substances and insoluble substance into very small particles, the chocolate became very delicate and smooth.
Second, will be the highest degree of chocolate products of all kinds of raw materials mixing, the mixing height all state, after to make sugar can't soon precipitation crystallization, grease phenomenon such as separation, so as not to affect the appearance of seven acrylic products and organizational structure.
So we must by grinding, mixing, the homogeneous and refined ingredients dispersed into very small particles (particle size less than 80 microns), at the same time, make all sorts of different material mixing very evenly, couldn't on the feel of the tongue to distinguish the different material of particle characteristics, and just think of chocolate as one integrated mass of lubrication, exquisite products. In order to achieve highly homogenizing, sometimes want to join the emulsifier, emulsion and dilution effect.
Viscosity is an important physical properties of chocolate. In the above the melting point of chocolate should have good liquidity, to make the material in the operation of transport and process smoothly. Viscosity temperature for chocolate, crystallization and molding is particularly important. Therefore, the viscosity is the important technical features of chocolate. Chocolate paste viscosity is different under different temperature, and viscosity is related to the content of cocoa butter.
Control the viscosity of chocolate and phospholipids, water content, dry milk solids, solid content and size of plasmid.
At room temperature, chocolate products with hard and brittle feature, when the temperature exceeds 30 ℃ above, it is by the solid suddenly turned into liquid, lose luster and complete shape, this is because the cocoa butter in the physical. Below its melting point of chocolate has a certain hardness and brittleness, above the melting point and good liquidity.
When close to the melting point, cocoa butter this duality was very obvious. Thus, chocolate candy in at close to its melting point temperature sensitive physical properties of ten. This request in the production process of mold filling, coating, packing and shipping and so on all need to pay attention to use this feature.
1. Preparation of cocoa block:
(1) of roasted: after fermentation and dry beans, the next step is roasted. Is the main purpose of roasted: get rid of some water; The shells brittle weather-shack, easy to get rid of the shell; Can make the dark brown cocoa, into purple, make of oil out of the cell infiltration, DouRou become bright; Roasted can make the composition change of cocoa beans, starch pasting into soluble particles, acids, alcohols and esters aromatic substances increase; Make the material plasticity.
(2) with roasted method is different, the required temperature and time are also different. New roasting method is the indirect hot air heat transfer for roasting. Different varieties of products required by different roasting temperature and time. The following is a hot continuous of roasted machine process conditions:
Variety temperature ℃ time (minutes)
Cocoa powder, 125 ~ 130 25 ~ 30
Milk chocolate 15 ~ 20 110 ~ 125
Dark chocolate 85 ~ 100 11 ~ 14
The higher the temperature of the roasting, the greater the attrition rate of cocoa beans, this is the need to pay attention to in the roasted technical and economic indicators.
(2) the winnowing screen: after roasted cocoa beans, leather case is cracked, but there is no separate meat and shell, need a bit by the rolling can be separated, under mechanical impact, pea fracturing for irregular pieces. Is the role of winnowing sieve DouRou and leather case, so that the next working procedure of DouRou processing.
(3) grinding, grinding also called early mill is grinding cocoa pieces into paste. In order to get composed of particles, cocoa mass, the process is very important. For grinding to 50 ~ 114 microns. After early after grinding can shorten the process of fine grinding time, and can obtain good effect. The ground into a paste, later can get brown cocoa mass.
The type of grinding equipment at the beginning of many: is there a plate mill, roller press, tooth grinding machine, ball mill and colloid mill, etc.
2. Fine grinding: will the into cocoa liquid at the beginning of the block, has processing good powdered sugar, add a certain amount of cocoa butter, milk powder, seasoning, surfactant, and spices, etc., then through further fine grinding, known as fine grinding.
Only at the beginning of the grinding cocoa or sugar powder material, size, enter the mouth after the rough feeling, must pass a fine grinding further smaller particles. When the fine grinding to much material of plasmid is less than 25 micron or between 18 ~ 23 micron, can make the chocolate into the man's mouth after no particles. This range is the requirement of fine grinding.
3. Refining: after fine grinding of chocolate although particle is very thin, but not enough is exquisite, is not beautiful enough and alcohol and fragrance, refining can further improve its quality. Especially senior chocolate has to be refined processes.
Refining is carried out within the refiner. Refining mill type many, the use of common for rotary refiner. Friction material within the refiner after repeated collision, the refined further grinding, fine grinding, the material moisture content and volatile aroma is away, the material being sufficient emulsification, thus improve the quality of the chocolate.
Refining temperature and time are the main conditions required, the edges and corners of plasmid temperature requirements, varies according to the varieties of chocolate candy. Dark chocolate is 55 ~ 85 ℃; Milk chocolate is 45 ~ 60 ℃. The time needed for fine grinding is very long, generally for 24 to 72 hours.
4. The temperature adjustment: the role of thermal control is to control the cocoa butter in different temperature of phase transformation, so as to achieve the qualitative effect.
Make the liquid chocolate sauce into a solid chocolate candy, best after tempering stages. Without the temperature or temperature is bad, can make the poor quality of the products.
Look from the requirements of production process, from a liquid into a solid chocolate material, it has obvious shrinkage, so easy to fall off from the model of the irrigation mode, it is necessary to continuous production line requirements. Temperature required by process conditions, can make the chocolate is expected to produce obvious shrinkage performance. Is good for demoulding and continuous production.
Chocolate without temperature or temperature cold setting after molding, products quality and structure of the rough, color gray, lack of chocolate should be brittle characteristics. In the preservation process, easy to become rough and similar litter of body quality and structure, the loss of goods value. So the temperature is an important process in chocolate production.
Chocolate material after tempering, it can be used in the production of chocolate candy. According to the molding process, chocolate candy can be divided into pouring mold to shape and painted the garment shape.
5. Pouring mold molding, casting mould with chocolate raw materials to strictly control the temperature and viscosity. Around 30 ℃ to feeding temperature requirement, high temperature damage has been formed stable crystal type of cocoa butter crystal type. Make into the quality structure is loose, and lack of shrinkage characteristics, difficult to demould, liable to occur in the storage of tinea or dark phenomenon. When the temperature is too low, viscous material, pouring mold difficult quantitative distribution, and bubble inside material is difficult to eliminate, honeycomb products easily. So in the process of forming, the material should always maintain accurate temperature, and asked not to be in the range of minimum temperature difference.
Viscosity is another important factor, the requirements of material level also affects its viscosity and viscosity distribution accuracy. Therefore, in the process of casting mould to keep the material viscosity range. After pouring mold, to make a shock on the model, make into a solid, quality prevent bubbles or gap. Breadth requirements no more than 5 mm, frequency about 1000 times per minute.
Will exist in the chocolate sauce in the heat comes in two forms: the sensible heat and latent heat. Sensible heat is refers to the chocolate sauce gives off heat when lowering temperature; Latent heat is refers to the heat released by the liquid to solid, the sum of two kinds of heat is the whole of the molding process needs to get rid of heat.
Demand for the cooling process is: when pouring mold, first in a freezer for 8 ~ 10 ℃, about 5 minutes, material temperature drop to 21 ℃; Then through 21 minutes, 12 ℃ temperature drop, the cooling of the total time required for 25 to 30 minutes. Cooling rate depends on the cooling temperature, cooling methods and products shape.
From liquid to solid state cooling speed cannot too fast, generally 8 ~ 10 ℃ cooling temperature, cooling the late can be appropriately increased to 12 ~ 14 ℃. It is advisable to cold wind speed 7 meters per second, when the chocolate bars contraction deformation after I arrived at the cooling end.
6. Tu clothing molding process: tu clothing shape silks, candy called chocolate. Many are named according to the layer, such as protein peanut chocolate, chocolate, etc.
On the garment molding process has the following requirements:
(1) the side panels and the requirement of the panels, and the nature of the panels and to be in harmony with chocolate coat, specific requirements are texture soft, easy to melt, viscous mouth and does not cause morphological changes, penetration perforation and swell-shrink rupture, rancidity deterioration, insect and mildew. Apply garment panels and temperature when the temperature is lower than coat 5 ℃ or so.
(2) the coat and the requirement to the coat: tu clothing with cocoa butter in chocolate material than pouring mold with the material. Tu clothing with chocolate sauce have appropriate viscosity and liquidity. Not only too thick material conveying the inconvenience, but uneven distribution, uneven thickness of clothing, can guarantee rate of consumption. In the process of the tu clothing, always strictly control the thermal control requirement of the sauce, 30 ~ 33 ℃.
(3) control is speed: tu clothing molding cooling passages of the unit should be 7 ~ 12 ℃, the cold wind speed is not more than 7 m/s, keep the cooling time of 15 ~ 20 minutes, cooling temperature can be a little higher, in the late in the dry conditions.
7. Chocolate candy packing: packing: is the main purpose of melting heat, prevent moisture absorption, prevent aroma dissipation, prevent fat precipitation rancidity, mouldproof, insect-resistant, pollution prevention. Requirement for packaging is beautiful and easy, rich and colorful, can forever keep chocolate candy color, aroma, taste and shape, especially health conditions.
General stencil is difficult to achieve the above requirements. Usually use of packaging materials are: aluminum foil, polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, etc. Also have use aluminum foil to polyethylene composite material or other composite materials.